What Exactly is Dividend Cover

What Exactly is Dividend Cover

Distributions of profits made on investments are known as dividends. They are distributed as a direct payment from the profits of the company to the shareholders, who are then given the opportunity to reinvest the funds. The shareholder who receives dividends is typically responsible for paying taxes on those dividends unless the dividends are held in a tax-advantaged account such as a Roth IRA.

The Meaning of a Dividend, Along with an Example

In order to accomplish its objectives and bring the business to a point where it can be profitable, a corporation must have access to capital from its shareholders. Investors are aware that they are participating in a risky venture, but they do so with the expectation of receiving a return on their money if the company is successful.

Investors can, of course, make a profit by selling shares at a later date when their value has increased and taking the resulting capital gain. However, many businesses provide additional incentives for shareholders to keep their money invested in the company by paying them directly. These distributions are referred to as “dividends.”

For instance, during the course of the previous year, Business XYZ realized a sizeable amount of profit. As a direct consequence, the board of directors has consented to the payment of a cash dividend to shareholders at the rate of $2 per share quarterly over the following year.

The Mechanism Behind Dividends

If you own shares in a company, you have the right to receive dividend payments from that company. Many investors anticipate receiving periodic payments as a form of compensation for continuing to keep their money invested in the company. It will be up to the board of directors to determine how much of the company’s money should be kept in retained earnings and how much should be returned to shareholders.

Earnings that are kept by a company and plowed back into its operations are essential to preserving its capital and financing its continued expansion.

When a company decides to start paying dividends, it will have to figure out the frequency of the payments and the amount that will be distributed to each share of stock. Take, for instance, the case where the board of directors of a company announces that the company will be paying dividends of $0.25 per share on a quarterly basis. After that, the shareholder in question can take the dividends in the form of cash or reinvest them in additional shares. Not only will an investor who owns 1,000 shares benefit from any increases in share value, but they will also benefit from quarterly dividends of $250 in this investment vehicle.

Ex-Dividend Date vs. Dividend-Payable Date

When the board of directors of a company decides to declare a dividend, they will also select an ex-dividend date and a date on which the dividend will be paid out. The “payable date” is the date on which the dividend is paid to the company’s shareholders. Everyone who owns shares will be eligible to receive the next dividend, calculated based on their total holdings, on the business day before the “ex-date.” If you buy the stock the day after the ex-date, you will not be eligible for the dividend payment that is about to be distributed because you will have purchased the stock after the ex-date. Instead, you will have to wait for any subsequent payments.

Why Do So Many Investors Concentrate Their Attention on Dividends?

The decision of which common stocks to include in your investment portfolio can be made easier by concentrating on dividends, which offer a number of benefits. To begin, the dividend yield on a company’s stock can function as a kind of signal about an under- or over-valuation of the company’s stock. Many years’ worth of scholarly investigation has repeatedly demonstrated that the so-called “quality of earnings” for dividend-paying companies is significantly higher than it is for companies that do not pay dividends. Over the course of time, companies that pay dividends have a greater propensity to outperform companies that do not pay dividends.

Even when the economy is in a tough spot, good companies have a track record of maintaining and increasing their dividend payments. This category includes a significant number of companies operating in the consumer staples sector. These kinds of businesses have a track record of being reliable investments, as evidenced by their consistent dividend payments.

It is possible that the dividend will act as a sort of floor underneath a stock during times of economic stress, preventing the stock from falling as far as it would with companies that do not pay dividends. For this reason, dividend stocks typically experience less of a decline during bear markets. By providing you with income that can be reinvested, dividends can also help speed up the process of rebuilding your portfolio.

The income from dividends is afforded favorable tax treatment as an additional incentive. Regular dividends are subject to the same taxation level as “ordinary income,” but qualified dividends are taxed at a lower rate.

The Reasons Behind the Non-Payment of Dividends by Some Companies

Many businesses choose not to pay dividends during times of rapid growth, opting instead to keep earnings in the company and put those funds toward business expansion. Because the owners have faith that the company can capitalize on the opportunities currently available, they agree to let the board of directors implement this policy even though they know it will eventually result in much larger dividend payments.

Without ever making payments to investors during those decades, Starbucks poured every penny it could into opening new locations. In 2010, after having reached a certain level of maturity and market saturation and having fewer opportunities for location within the United States, it declared its first dividend. This occurred after there were fewer location opportunities within the country.

When a company that does not pay dividends increases its shareholder equity, it is because investors anticipate that at some point, they will receive their money back — either through increases in shareholder value or future dividends. This is why a company that does not pay dividends can increase its shareholder equity. That makes the company appealing to potential investors and could be of assistance to it in the future when it comes to raising additional funding.

Investors Who Participate in Dividend Programs

Investors in dividends can take their pick from a variety of strategies, depending on the objectives they have set for their portfolios.

Investors in Dividend Growth Opportunities

An investor who focuses on dividend growth looks to purchase stocks that have a high growth rate in the absolute dividend paid out per share. For illustration’s sake, let’s say that Company A’s current dividend yield is 1.4 percent, while Company B’s yield is 3.6 percent. Because Company A is growing at such a rapid rate, investors have a good reason to anticipate that the dividend will increase at a rapid rate. Even though the yield at the beginning of the investment was lower, it is quite possible that a long-term owner of Company A stock with an investment horizon of ten years or longer could end up collecting more absolute dividends than a shareholder in Company B. This is despite the fact that the starting yield was lower.

Dividend Yield Investors

An investor in dividend yields focuses on purchasing stocks with the highest dividend yields that they consider to be “safe.” This typically means that the stocks are covered by a minimum ratio of payout-to-earnings or cash flow. Still, it can also mean that the stocks have other qualifying characteristics. Blue-chip companies that pay a dividend and have the potential to grow at a rate of no more than a few percentage points annually would be required by this type of portfolio management.

Since dividend growth stocks are more likely to outperform high-dividend-yield stocks, this strategy is best suited for an investor who anticipates needing a significant amount of passive income in their later decades of life. In a more general sense, this strategy is most appropriate for an investor who is nearing the end of their life.

Aristocrats of the Dividend Market

A company is considered a dividend aristocrat if S&P Dow Jones Indices have recognized it as having increased its dividend per share on an annual basis, without fail, for at least 25 years. That means that even if you never bought another share, your dividends have grown along with the company. Consider dividend aristocrats to be the royalty of the investment world. These dividend-paying companies have been around the longest and have the most impressive track records.

Reinvesting Dividends

When you choose to reinvest your dividends, you put the money that the company sends you toward the purchase of additional shares of the company’s stock. You can have your stock brokerage firm handle this for you, or you can enroll in a program that handles dividend reinvestment (DRIP).

Direct Investment in Preferred Stock (DRIP) is a plan that is sponsored by a company that enables individuals and, in some instances, legal entities such as corporations or nonprofit organizations to purchase shares of stock directly from the company. DRIPs are managed by a transfer agent and typically offer significantly reduced (and in some instances, completely free) trading and administrative costs. DRIPs are also known as dividend reinvestment plans.

Stock Dividends

A stock dividend is not the same as an ordinary cash dividend; it occurs when a company gives additional shares to owners based on a ratio. An ordinary cash dividend is paid out to shareholders on a regular basis. It is essential that you are aware that dividends on stocks do not constitute income in the conventional sense; rather, they serve more frequently as a psychological instrument.

Benjamin Graham, a well-known value investor and the mentor of Warren Buffett, wrote almost a century ago about the advantages of a company paying a regular stock dividend to give shareholders a tangible symbol of the retained profits that were reinvested on their behalf. Graham emphasized the importance of a company paying a stock dividend when the company retained earnings but did not pay a cash dividend. Those who were interested in expanding their businesses could keep them, while others could sell them to generate income.

Dividends vs. Capital Gains

There are important similarities between dividends and capital gains as important forms of investor returns; however, there are also significant differences between the two.


Capital Gains

Cash or additional stock payments derived from company profits Represent an increase in share value
Represent immediate shareholder returns Not booked until the stock is sold
Can be scheduled or paid at the discretion of the board of directors Based on the market value of a company, and not a board decision
Can be reinvested or cashed out by the shareholder

Key Takeaways

  • A form of investment return known as a dividend is a payment made directly to shareholders from the profits of the company.
  • The board of directors of a company has the authority to decide whether the company will pay a dividend per share on a predetermined schedule, at any time it sees fit, or not at all.
  • Investors can take cash out of their dividends or reinvest them.
  • Dividends are not the same as capital gains, which refer to an increase in share value and are not realized until shares are sold. Dividends are paid out periodically to shareholders.

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