We explain what motivation is and what its main characteristics are. Also, what are the motivating factors.
What is motivation?
Motivation is the set of stimuli that move people to carry out certain actions or to assume certain attitudes and persist in them. Motivation has been studied intensely from psychology , since it has been seen that it has an important impact on human behavior, both individually and in groups.
Motivation characteristics :
Internal psychological process
Motivation is a psychological phenomenon that cannot be measured or observed directly , it can only be evaluated through the behaviors it triggers and the results it achieves.
Although many people can be motivated by applying the same stimuli , many others could react in a different way than expected, so it is important to know who the motivation is aimed at.
Motivation is quite complex to analyze, since it integrates cognitive and affective aspects, as well as conscious and unconscious aspects.
Extrinsic or intrinsic
We speak of extrinsic motivation when it comes from the outside , generally associated with a reward (material or not). On the contrary, intrinsic motivation obeys to factors or internal impulses of the subject.
Intentional or purposeful
Being oriented towards a goal or objective clearly stated a priori (which may be: sell more, produce more, learn a language , master a sport , etc.), motivation achieves a positive attitude and makes the task be faced with energy . Often the person achieves a comforting sense of control over the activity they do and the results they get.
Generates active and persistent behaviors
It is logical to think that the stronger the stimulus or the need that triggers the behavior, the greater the energy put in that direction, as well as the persistence in achieving the achievement.
Motivation takes the individual out of natural inertia to always do the same , in the same way, when posing new challenges. The ability to strive for new goals renews self-confidence and contributes to self-esteem .
The motivation process triggered by internal or external determinants moves the behavior in a certain direction, and by interacting with the environment, it creates a feedback system , where others add to the attitude of improvement.
Motivation is not pressure
In the workplace especially, there is a very big difference between motivation and pressure : in fact, a good group leader will know how to transform the usual pressure factors into motivational instruments, which will result in a clear benefit.
The human being is subject to different behavioral triggers, which are therefore considered motivational mechanisms. They are divided into two main types:
- Biological. Organic-based ones are included here, which simply seek to satisfy innate physiological needs (hunger, thirst, sexual impulse, need for rest, etc.), which is why they are considered universal, beyond slight inter subject variations.
- Social. They are linked to the internal needs of people as social subjects. Social factors can be:
- Achievement. It is what drives the individual to grow, to achieve excellence in what they do.
- Membership. It is what drives the individual to seek better interpersonal relationships.
- Can. It is what drives the human being to achieve influence over other people or the situations that surround him. This type of motivation can be harmful.
- Self realization. It is linked to the improvement of skills and abilities.
- Recognition. It is linked to the search for recognition or admiration.
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