We explain what avant-garde is, when it emerged and its characteristics. In addition, the movements that he developed, his works and main authors.
What is Avant-Garde?
Avant-garde is a set of diverse artistic movements that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century , in a very convulsed context at the political, economic and social level. It had its greatest development in Europe (especially in France ) and, later in Latin America (especially in Argentina and Mexico ).
The term vanguard (of military and political origin) means “advanced guard” . It began to be used as a metaphor for the cultural attitudes of the late nineteenth century, especially the literary and artistic currents, which confronted the current established order.
The avant-garde represents an art impregnated by radicalism and political, social and aesthetic criticism, which is why socialist , anarchist , communist and apolitical ideologies were frequent among avant-garde artists.
The artists, their ideas and their diversity of styles, were accepted collectively among the avant-garde, as a shield against the rest of orthodox society . The avant-garde refers to a group, not just an innovative individual.
Historical context of the avant-garde
The avant-garde emerged at the end of the 19th century in the midst of a religious, philosophical and cultural crisis that unleashed the discrediting and destruction of various traditional signs and values .
At the beginning of the 20th century, the great tensions between the countries of Europe were due to the First World War (between 1914 and 1918) and the emergence of socialist ideologies that gave rise to the Soviet Union (1917) .
Characteristics of avant-garde
Avant-garde artists sought to challenge the limits imposed by tradition . The unprecedented development of science and new technologies had a great impact on the works.
The rule was experimentation with new notions of beauty and ugliness . The artists were nurtured by the lifestyle of the metropolis and its fast pace, psychology and taboo subjects outside of art .
The avant-garde grew driven by the development of print media , and established a turning point between art and culture , through the liberation of the creative spirit.