We explain what the cerebellum is, what its anatomy is like and its main functions. Also, what are its characteristics, diseases and more.
The cerebellum is a structure of the central nervous system . It is the largest part of the brain after the brain . It is located in the back and lower part of the skull.
The main function of the cerebellum is to integrate motor and sensory pathways. In short, it receives information and orders from the cerebral cortex and connects them with the locomotor system . It is also responsible for some processes of memory , language , attention, learning, among other functions. However, the cerebellum is not responsible for any of the functions of the olfactory system.
The cerebellum, in addition, is responsible for physiological tremor . It is for this reason that when faced with an injury in this part of the brain, paralysis does not occur, but it can generate disorders in motor performance, balance or body posture.
It is ovoid in shape, weighs between 150 and 180 gr . The cerebellum of men weighs 9 grams more than that of women. They are 8 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm in size. The entire cerebellum is covered by a cerebrospinal fluid . It has 3 faces: anterior, superior and inferior:
It is made up of two hemispheres in the center of which there is a small cavity called Vermis . This narrow structure is shaped like a worm. There the unconscious nervous pathways lodge or end.
As we have mentioned previously, its main function lies in coordinating the sensory and motor pathways . That is, it makes the muscles react to sensory stimuli. It is the cerebellum that reacts or responds quickly to an external danger signal and sends the signal to the brain to react quickly and the reaction occurs.
Neurons is the name given to nerve cells together with their processes . About 50% of all neurons in the brain are found within the cerebellum, although their size relative to the brain is 10%.
It is divided into gray matter and white matter:
Given the functions described above, it would be impossible to believe that a human being could live without a cerebellum . However, there are people who, after relevant studies, are found to have been born without a cerebellum.
Although the lack of it at birth could suggest a premature death, there are currently 9 registered cases of adults without a cerebellum. This phenomenon of malformation and survival accounts for the adaptive plastic capacity of the human brain to the environment . However, it is still a rarity and a malformation with little chance of survival in general.
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