We explain what freedom is and what its characteristics are. Also, the types of liberty and liberty in world societies.
What is the Freedom?
Freedom is a faculty or ability that human beings have to act in one way or another, under their own responsibility . The word freedom comes from the Latin libertas, which means: "human capacity to act of one's own free will".
In today's societies, the concept of freedom is a universal right of every person and includes the power of free thought, free expression and free choice, provided that the action respects the rights of other people.
However, the concept of freedom is even broader and more complex, reaching branches of study such as philosophy , ethics and law . It is one of the supreme values to guarantee the dignified and happy life of the individual .
The freedom of expression was seen as a universal value after the French Revolution of 1789 and the War of American Independence of 1783.
The French people were oppressed for a long period by a ruling system of absolutist monarchy in which the feudal nobility enjoyed privileges. This situation perpetuated over time was the trigger for a revolution to take place.
Through various social conflicts these new revolutionary ideas were echoed throughout Europe and North America , and in different countries the repudiation of the absolutist monarchical regimes became widespread. Various French philosophers such as Voltaire, Jean - Jaques Rousseau and Montesquieu promoted the freedom of people in all aspects, both in art, science and politics.
In 1948 the United Nations General Assembly published a document containing thirty articles that listed human rights considered basic and universal, such as the right to freedom of expression.
Characteristics of freedom
Among the main characteristics of freedom, the following stand out:
- It is an intrinsic right of every individual , that is, it belongs to one's own being by the mere fact of being a person.
- It is a faculty of people that is based on responsibility and empathy for its correct performance.
- It is a value, an abstract concept, that guides human actions towards respect and integrity , in various fields such as law, philosophy and ethics.
- It is a right that is manifested and respected, especially in more developed societies .
- It implies that the individual has their own beliefs and opinions , without being bothered or judged for expressing them in society.
- It has certain limits that correspond to the freedoms of other individuals. No one has the right to act in a way that violates or violates the rights of others.
- It is the opposite of slavery , oppression and discrimination .
Types of freedom
Among the main types of freedom, the following stand out:
- Freedom of worship. It corresponds to the ability to express the religious belief that each individual chooses, regardless of the opinion of others.
- Freedom of the press. It corresponds to the ability to expose and disseminate argued and reliable information in the media, without suffering censorship or being denigrated.
- Freedom of expression . It corresponds to the ability to express personal thoughts , emotions and feelings, which do not imply an offense to others, without being bothered or discriminated against.
- Freedom of choice. It corresponds to the ability to choose what one wants for their life and at any stage of their life, such as their gender status, the religion to practice, the discipline to study, the job to be done, whether or not they will form a family, their loving partner, their friends and their lifestyle, as long as it does not violate the freedom or rights of other individuals.
Freedom in the world
Freedom does not manifest itself in the same way in all countries of the world. In recent years, massive protests have occurred in various nations to demand greater freedom and more democratic governments .
Among the countries that presented the highest concentration of massive mobilizations against authoritarian regimes and for the demand for the decline of democracies were: Bolivia , Chile , Ethiopia, Colombia, Venezuela , Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Sudan and Lebanon.
The report "Freedom in the world 2020", prepared by the American non-profit organization Freedom House, highlights the following statistical data:
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- Out of a sample of 195 countries, 83 countries rated as free , 63 countries as partially free, and 49 countries as not free.
- In Africa, the highest concentration of unfree countries was detected , both with progress and deterioration.
- In the last decade deteriorations were detected in most democracies , such as fraudulent electoral processes or state repression.
- Authoritarian powers have expanded their level of influence in the world. It is for example the case of Russia and North Korea.