We explain what the journalistic genre is and its main characteristics. Also, what are the types and examples of each.
What is the journalistic genre?
The journalistic genre is a way of communicating important events that occur in society
or that are of general interest. It emerged in the 20th century and was driven by the development of the mass media.
Journalistic genres have the function of communicating in the most credible and objective way possible
. Depending on their composition, they can be informative, interpretive and opinionated, and are differentiated by the role that the journalist takes when communicating, which can be to transmit data, to tell an argued opinion or to interview.
Characteristics of journalistic genres
Journalistic genres are characterized by:
- Treat current affairs .
- Report objectively with qualitative data .
- Convey the argued opinion of a journalist or specialist.
- Reflect the ideology of a communication medium.
- Have the ability to reflect or influence the opinion of the masses .
Types of journalistic genres
Journalistic genres can be:
- Informative journalistic genres: They are the genres in which the journalist provides concrete, quantitative data and evidence, without issuing a value judgment or opinion on the subject, such as a news item or a report to a specialist.
- Journalistic opinion genres: They are the genres in which the journalist expresses his point of view, or that of the communication medium he represents, about an event, such as an editorial publication or an opinion article.
- Interpretive journalistic genres: Also called mixed, are the genres that include objective information and the opinion of the journalist or specialist, such as the chronicle , the report or the interpretive interview .
Examples of journalistic genres
Each type of journalistic genre presents particular characteristics in its structure.
Among the main examples of the informative genre are:
- The news . It is the informative genre that is characterized by detailing an event objectively, regardless of who or what means of communication disseminates it. The news usually contains information about an event and must be able to answer the questions: who? What? Where? When? and how? It must communicate a true event, which occurred today and be interesting to the mass public.
- The report . It is the informative genre that is characterized by the informative and expository character that a journalist develops regarding a topic of great public interest. It consists of a compilation as a documentary that can include data, photographs, videos, interviews, documents and other evidence, and that is prepared based on the criteria or point of view of the journalist.
- The survey. It is the informative genre that is characterized by a set of planned questions with the aim of carrying out a measurable or evaluative investigation regarding a topic. For example, it allows you to obtain quantitative data, such as a comparison chart or table. Surveys can be: descriptive, analytical, open (leading to long responses) or closed (seeking to obtain a specific response).
Among the main examples of the opinion genre are:
- The editorial. It is the type of opinion that is characterized by exposing and arguing an event based on value judgments that usually represent the collective opinion. It is usually published in a permanent section of the graphic medium without personal signature, because it represents the publisher or the media in general.
- The opinion piece. It is the genre of opinion that is characterized by expressing the personal and argued point of view of the editor or journalist, regarding a particular issue.
- Column. It is the genre of opinion that is characterized by being a permanent editorial space that offers the opinion of various specialists according to each publication, such as a journalist, a doctor or an athlete.
Among the main examples of the interpretive genre are:
- The chronicle . It is the interpretive genre that is characterized by reporting a fact in a detailed and chronological way, in addition to adding interpretive features of the journalist.
- The interpretive interview . It is the interpretive genre that is characterized by a set of questions prepared by the journalist that seek to investigate various personal aspects of the interviewee and not only their opinion on a particular topic.
Manipulation of public opinion
Public opinion today is often manipulated according to the particular interest of certain power groups
, with the objective of personal benefit or convenience.
Sometimes it is difficult to identify a news story as merely informative, because it usually reflects or hints at the ideology of the medium that transmits it and influences the tone in which the message is communicated.
The fact of placing the news on the front page or in a secondary section, emphasizing the fact over the perpetrator of the crime, or simply omitting the news and not mentioning it, are various indirect strategies that reflect a position or point of view. view on a topic.
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