We explain what Mannerism is, its main characteristics and how it originated. In addition, its representatives in Europe and America.
What is Mannerism?
Mannerism is an artistic movement of the early nineteenth century after Romanticism . It stood out for representing the folklore of a social group or a region , that is, the customs and scenes that were part of the tradition of each place.
The movement arose in Spain and then spread to Italy and the rest of Europe and, from the middle of the 19th century, to America . The word Mannerism derives from Italian and the term custom means "fashion" or "style".
It was a current that manifested itself in painting , theater and, especially, in literature with a simple expressive approach (without analyzing or judging the situation) that reflected everyday life.
Mannerism was affected by the great discoveries and scientific advances of the 19th century that happened in an accelerated way. The fact of claiming certain customs was necessary to reinforce the identity of European society in a context of great changes .
Characteristics of Mannerism
Among the main characteristics of Mannerism, the following stand out:
- It was an artistic movement that began in Spain in the 19th century and spread throughout Europe.
- It manifested itself in painting, theater and, especially, in literature .
- He represented the everyday life and habits of a society in an expressive way.
- It represented the search for one's own social identity .
- It was influenced by the accelerated technological advances of the time of the Industrial Revolution .
Origin of Mannerism
The origin of the traditional art movement was manifested, especially, in the Spanish literature of the mid-1800s . It was a time when the inventions of transportation allowed people to move from one region to another.
The new lifestyle was a topic of interest to capture in literature and to spread the customs of each place, with a certain romantic and picturesque style , such as the exodus of the peasants to work in the city and the bourgeoisie that was a new class social that arose along with the Industrial Revolution.
The 19th century was the beginning of a period of intense social and political changes in Europe and the beginning of the process of decolonization towards independence in Latin America . The art and, especially, the costumbrista literature of America highlighted the nationalism and the traditional of their land.
Representatives of Mannerism
Among the main European literary representatives of the Mannerism movement, the following stand out:
- Alejandro Pérez Lugín (1870 - 1926). He was a Spanish writer, journalist and filmmaker who stood out for his sentimental genre-style work, such as the 1915 novel La casa de Troya . Several of his works were adapted for film .
- Armando Palacios Valdés (1853 - 1938). He was a Spanish literary critic and writer, representative of the realist movement . He stood out for his costumbristas works, such as: Marta y María from 1883 and The Sister of San Sulpicio from 1889.
- Cecilia Böhl de Faber and Ruiz de Larrea (1796 - 1877). She was a Swiss writer who lived in Spain and who signed her work with the pseudonym Fernán Caballero . It is considered the driving force behind the renewal of the Spanish novel .
- Emiliano Ramírez Ángel (1883 - 1928) . He was a Spanish novelist and poet who stood out for novels such as: Los ojos Abierto, Scenes from the life of a poor man from 1916 and Ella y el se que se que de 1927.
- José María de Pereda (1833 - 1906). He was a Spanish writer and novelist who stood out for his genre novels, such as: La Montálvez from 1888 and Peñas arriba from 1895.
- Juan Valera (1824 - 1905). He was a Spanish writer who stood out for the realism reflected in his novels and for his work: Pepita Jiménez from 1874.
- Mariano José de Larra (1809 - 1837). He was a Spanish writer and journalist considered one of the most recognized representatives of Romanticism and one of the founders of the traditional trend.
- Pedro de Répide (1882 - 1947). He was a Spanish writer and journalist and the first representative of the Corps of Cronistas of Madrid. He was noted for his works La Madrid de los abuelos from 1908 and Las calle de Madrid .
- Serafín Álvarez Quintero (1871 - 1938) and his brother Joaquín (1973 - 1944). They were Spanish poets and playwrights known as the Álvarez Quintero brothers who stood out for dramatic works such as: The Right Eye of 1897 and The Flowers of 1901.
Among the main American literary representatives of the Mannerism movement, the following stand out:
- Eustaquio Palacios (1830 - 1898). He was a Colombian writer and politician who stood out for works such as: Esneda o amor de madre from 1874 and El alférez real from 1886.
- Jorge Isaacs Ferrer (1837 - 1895). He was a Colombian novelist and poet who stood out for his works To my country of 1864 and Popular songs and verses published in 1985.
- José Eugenio Díaz Castro (1803 - 1865). He was a Colombian writer and novelist who stood out for his 1856 novel Manuela , considered the work that started the artistic trend in his country.
- José Joaquín Vallejo (1811 - 1858). He was a Chilean writer and journalist considered the first representative of Mannerism in his country.
- José Milla y Vidaurre (1822 - 1882). He was a Guatemalan writer considered one of the founders of the novel and historical narrative in his country.
- Juan Vicente González (1810 - 1866). He was a Venezuelan writer and journalist considered the first representative of Romanticism in his country.
- Rafael María Baralt (1810 - 1860). He was a Venezuelan writer and poet who stood out for writing the first dictionary of Gallicisms in Spanish.
- Rafael Pombo (1833-1912). He was a Colombian writer, poet and diplomat who stood out for works such as: The poor old woman from 1854 and Shepherd from 1867.
- Ricardo Palma (1833 - 1919). He was a Peruvian writer representative of Romanticism and Mannerism. He was noted for his short fiction stories and Peruvian traditions.
- Tomás Carrasquilla (1858 - 1940). He was a Colombian writer who stood out for his simple and representative works of Mannerism, such as: Fruits of my land of 1896 and In the right hand of God the Father of 1897.
- José Manuel Groot (1800 - 1878) . He was a Colombian writer, historian, journalist and painter who stood out for reflecting his variety of interests and specialties in his literary works, such as: Ecclesiastical and civil history of New Granada from 1869 and God and country: selected articles from 1894.
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