We explain what the postclassic period is, its historical context and its characteristics. Also, what are the main civilizations and more.
The Postclassic period corresponds to the last stage of the history of pre-Columbian America, between 900 AD. C. and 1521 d. C. This stage was marked by the decline of the great civilizations that inhabited Mesoamerica , in a context of large military deployment, economic problems and populations very numerous.
Among the main cultures of the Postclassic period , the Mayan, Inca and Aztec empires stood out, whose history was interpreted based on archaeological evidence and the chronicles of the Spanish who colonized the American lands and defeated the peoples.
The term “Mesoamerica”, which comes from the Greek, means intermediate America and refers to the territories of Mexico , Guatemala , El Salvador, Belize, Nicaragua , Honduras and Costa Rica.
The Mesoamerican Postclassic period included the end of the Middle Ages (from 400 AD to 1492 AD) and began the Modern Age with the European invasions of America .
The Mayan civilization , made up of a group of independent city-states, managed to be the most powerful and advanced of the classical period, which was characterized by the constant increase in populations, imposing buildings and advanced agricultural techniques that allowed economic progress.
The Postclassic period was characterized by two main stages:
They made sophisticated hydraulic systems for irrigation , as in the important city of Tenochtitlán, in Mexico. It consisted of an island surrounded by canal systems and fields. All these advances in agriculture made it possible to achieve greater production that contributed to the development of trade with neighboring populations.
Pre -Columbian cultures of the Postclassic period achieved sophisticated knowledge of astronomy, mathematics, agricultural techniques, metalworking (such as gold , silver, and copper ), and writing . They created highly precise calendars and built imposing urban architectural centers, such as Tenochtilán, in present-day Mexico City .
The European invasion of America began with the arrival of the Spanish in 1492 , at which time they found a continent inhabited by different civilizations, among the most important, the Mayas, Incas and Aztecs. The Spanish established the first European colony on the current island divided into two countries, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
The end of the Middle Ages was established. From 1500 the Modern Age developed as a consequence of the meeting of the old world, made up of Europe , Asia and Africa , and the new world, made up of America.
Between 1519 and 1521 the Europeans returned to the American continent with the aim of dominating the Mesoamerican civilizations and carried out the most significant conquests, in principle, of the civilizations located in the territories of Mexico. Through force , economic exploitation, the usurpation of resources and the Christianization of the Indians, they devastated Mesoamerican cultures.
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