We explain everything about Argentina, how is its climate, flora and fauna. In addition, its characteristics, traditions, customs and national symbols.
Argentina is a country located in the extreme south of South America . Its territory is divided into 23 provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires , which is its capital and most populated city.
The Argentine Republic has a total area of 2,780,400 km 2 although if the Malvinas Islands are considered (it has been in a bid with England since 1982 for the sovereignty of this territory) its total territory totals 3,761,274 km 2 . It is the second largest country in South America and borders Chile to the west, Paraguay and Bolivia to the northwest, and Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast .
It is characterized by being a notably agro-livestock country , which houses in its extensive territory a great variety of climates, reliefs, flora and fauna. It is one of the most visited countries in Latin America , which receives a large number of tourists attracted by its landscapes, its cultural life and its gastronomy, in which wine and meat stand out.
Argentina is a country with deeply rooted customs and traditions, some inherited from the immigrants it received at the beginning of the 20th century and others from the native peoples who survived the conquest of America , since Argentina was a Spanish colony until 1816, the year of its independence. .
Characteristics of Argentina
- Population . Argentina is a country populated by almost 45 million inhabitants. Many are descended from immigrants from France , Italy and Spain and many others are descended from Native Americans. The most populated cities in the country are the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, the city of Córdoba and Rosario (in Santa Fe).
- Language . Most of the Argentine population speaks Spanish, however, a portion of the inhabitants still use Native American languages, such as Quechua, Mapuche, Aymara, Guaraní, among others.
- Religion . The religion that the majority of the inhabitants of Argentina profess is Catholicism (a legacy of religious culture inherited from Spain). However, freedom of worship reigns in the country, which is why other religions such as Judaism , Protestantism, among others are professed .
- Currency . Argentina has a currency called "peso", a currency not very strong in reference to the US dollar.
- Independence . Argentina was a Spanish colony until 1816, the year in which it declared its independence.
- Form of government . Argentina is a republic under a presidential and democratic system. Its form of government is representative, republican and federal.
- National symbols . The national symbols that represent Argentina are the shield, the flag and the anthem.
Main geographical areas of ArgentinaArgentina is a country that is divided into 23 provinces and an autonomous city , Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, which is the capital of the country.
The city of Buenos Aires is one of the most visited cities in Latin America and is located in the center-east of the country on the banks of the Río de la Plata and its territory is divided into 15 communes inhabited by almost 3 million people. It is an autonomous territory presided over by a head of government and has its own executive , legislative and judicial power and its own security forces.
For their part, the provinces are jurisdictions that also have their own political organization and have executive, legislative and judicial powers. Its territory is divided into departments or parties that are made up of municipalities. The Argentine provinces are:
- Buenos Aires . It is located in the center of the country and is the most populated Argentine province. Its capital is the city of La Plata.
- The Pampa . It is located in the center of the country, in the area known as the Pampas region, and its capital is the city of Santa Rosa.
- Cordoba . It is located in the center of the country and its capital is the city of Córdoba.
- Santa Fe . It is located in the center of the country and its capital is the city of Santa Fe.
- Between Rivers . It is located in the center-east of the country and is part of Mesopotamia. Its capital is the city of Paraná.
- Corrientes . It is located in the northeast of the country and its capital is the city of Corrientes.
- Missions . It is located in the extreme northeast of the country and its capital is the city of Posadas.
- Formosa . It is located in the northeast of the country and its capital is the city of Formosa.
- Chaco . It is located in the north of the country and its capital is the city of Resistencia.
- Salta . It is located in the north of the country and its capital is the city of Salta.
- Jujuy . It is located in the north of the country and its capital is the city of San Salvador de Jujuy.
- Tucuman . It is located in the north of the country and its capital is the city of Tucumán.
- Santiago del Estero . It is located in the north of the country and its capital is the city of Santiago del Estero.
- Catamarca . It is located in the northwest of the country and its capital is the city of San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca.
- The Rioja. It is located in the northwest of the country and its capital is the city of La Rioja.
- Saint Louis. It is located in the center of the country and its capital is the city of San Luis.
- San Juan. It is located in the center-west of the country and its capital is the city of San Juan.
- Mendoza . It is located in the west of the country and its capital is the city of Mendoza.
- Neuquén. It is located in the southwest of the country and its capital is the city of Neuquén.
- Black river. It is located in the south of the country and its capital is the city of Viedma.
- Chubut . It is located in the south of the country and its capital is the city of Rawson.
- Santa Cruz. It is located in the south of the country and its capital is the city of Río Gallegos.
- Land of Fire. It is located in the south of the country and its capital is the city of Ushuaia.
Climate and relief of ArgentinaDue to the extension of its territory, Argentina is a country that presents different types of climates . There are areas with cold, warm and temperate climates and most of the regions present the four distinct seasons.
The characteristics of the climate according to each region are:
- Northeast . The climate of this area is subtropical with humid and very hot summers and short, cool winters, and rainfall descends from east to west. The maximum temperatures in summer usually exceed 30 ° C and in winter they do not drop below 10 ° C. It is an area with water flows such as estuaries, rivers and lagoons.
- Northwest . The climate of this area is characterized by being temperate and warm and it is a region in which two different reliefs coexist : an area of yungas, in which there are high temperatures and a high percentage of humidity, and an arid area in which the climate is dry and hot. Temperatures range from lows of 4 ° C in winter to highs of 30 ° C in summer. It is a region characterized by its mountains and hills and rainfall is usually concentrated in the summer.
- Central region . The climate of this area is temperate, the summers are warm and the winters cool (with frosts but with a low probability of snowfall). Summer in this region has an average temperature of between 20 and 30 ° C and rainfall, and winter usually presents temperatures between 10 and 20 ° C. The central region is characterized by being an extensive plain with few undulations.
- Whose . The climate in this area is semi-arid with high temperatures during the summer and low temperatures in the winter. It has a climate and terrain conducive to growing vines and is a region famous for its wines. The Cuyo area is characterized by the zonda wind, a type of strong, hot and dry wind that carries a large amount of dust and usually occurs towards the end of winter. Its relief has plateaus and mountain ranges, among which the Andes mountain range stands out (which runs through the country from north to south) which is home to Aconcagua, the highest peak in the west (6960 m).
- Patagonia . It is the southernmost area of the American continent and its temperatures drop from north to south. There is an area known as Patagonian forests, which is windy and humid, and an area of Patagonian steppe, where the winds lose moisture and the region becomes a dry and arid area.
Flora and fauna of ArgentinaThe flora and fauna of Argentina are very varied and change according to the different geographical regions.
- Northwest area . In this area the vegetation and fauna change according to each type of relief and climate. To the west (in the provinces of Salta, Jujuy, Catamarca, San Juan, La Rioja and Tucumán), the climate allows llamas, vicuñas, pumas, snakes and foxes to inhabit and, in high altitude areas, you can see eagles and condors. The flora in this area is scarce, with an abundance of cacti and low plants. In the yungas area there is a great variety of vegetation with species such as laurels, cedars, orchids and mosses.
- Northeast area . In this area the vegetation is abundant, the plants are tall and dense and forests and jungle plants are frequent . The animals that can be seen in this region are monkeys , toucans , pumas, jaguars, tapirs and capybaras. Among the vegetation are aquatic plants, palm trees, carob trees, aguaribayes, poplars, willows, lapachos, reeds, timbos, among others.
- Whose . This area is characterized by being arid and desert, so the vegetation that usually grows is of the xerophilous type. Some of the most common species are carob, espinillo, chañar, tala, viscote, aromo, jarilla, alpataco, chilca and cactus. On the other hand, the animals that inhabit the Cuyo area are the Andean condor, the puma, the Andean mouse, the hare, the owl , the rhea, the weasel, the guanaco, the fox , among others.
- Downtown area . This area is made up of plains that allow sheep, horses and cows to graze . In addition, the native animals of this region are the partridge, the ñandú, the capybara, the furry, the vizcacha, the fox, the overo lizard, the skunk, among others. Regarding the vegetation, the area is characterized by the presence of grasses typical of agricultural production, such as wheat, corn and barley, this is due to the great presence of humus in the soil that makes this area one of the most fertile regions of the country. There is no presence of large native trees in the central zone, with the exception of the ombú and other species that grow on the margins of water courses, for which pastures abound such as wild straw, flying straw, red grass, among others. Some of the trees introduced in this area are eucalyptus and pine.
- Patagonia . In this area the trees are low due to the intense winds that characterize the region and the grass is generally dry as a result of the scarce rainfall. However, in the forest area there are myrtles, coihues, larches, amancays, cypresses, lengas, maitenes, among others. As for the fauna, they inhabit insects (such as arachnids and scorpions), snakes and vipers, lambs, horses, deer, hares, foxes and armadillos. In the coastal areas there is a great variety of fish and mammals such as the right whale, penguins and walruses.
Argentinian cultureArgentina is a country characterized by great cultural development, in areas such as letters, music and theater.
- Literature . The Argentine literary tradition is very prominent, one of its precursors was Esteban Echeverría, author of the first Argentine story: El Matadero (1838) . Domingo Faustino Sarmiento also stood out with the work Facundo (1845). One of the genres typical of this country is gaucho literature and the work Martín Fierro (1872), by José Hernández, is the main exponent of the genre. Over the years, authors such as Ernesto Sábato, Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortázar, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Roberto Arlt, Leopoldo Lugones and Ricardo Güiraldes stood out.
- Music . Music is a cultural manifestation spread throughout the country and in which rhythms and genres of each region stand out. Among the main ones are: the tango (in the River Plate area), the chacarera (in provinces such as Santiago del Estero), the chamamé (in the northeast), the carnavalito (in the northwest), the quartet (in the province of Córdoba) , the milonga (in the River Plate area), the zamba (in the northwest), the Santa Fe cumbia (in the province of Santa Fe), among others. Many of these genres also have their own dances , such as the chamamé, the tango and the malambo.
- Art . The painter Prilidiano Pueyrredón was one of the pioneers of Argentine painting and from the middle of the 19th century and in the 20th century, artists such as Florencio Molina Campos, Antonio Berni, Raúl Soldi, Xul Solar, Benito Quinquela Martín, Emilio Pettoruti, Eduardo stood out. Sívori, Norah Borges, among others.
- Gastronomy . Argentine gastronomy has its roots in the influences of Native American peoples and immigrants who arrived from different geographical points, such as the Middle East , Africa and Europe.. Livestock development made Argentina a meat consuming country and the main dishes include choripán, asado, dishes with lamb and milanesas. In addition, Argentine gastronomy highlights dishes such as locro, tamales, empanadas, stews and, due to the influence of Italian immigration, pastas and pizzas. Due to the large milk production, dulce de leche (made from milk, sugar and bicarbonate) is the protagonist in Argentine pastries and in products such as alfajores. Mate is the main infusion of Argentines, and wine (their national drink) and fernet are two of the most popular alcoholic beverages in the country.
- Sport . The most widespread sport in Argentina is soccer, which moves supporters from all over the country. In addition, motorsport and boxing are two sports with a large following. The national sport is the duck, which is a discipline that is carried out on horseback, and there is also a strong tradition in polo. Other popular sports in Argentina are basketball, volleyball, field hockey, tennis, rowing and cycling.
Argentine customsArgentina is a very large and diverse country with traditions and festivities that vary according to the geographic region. Many of the customs have their origin in the traditions of the native inhabitants of America, and many others arose from the multicultural fusion produced by the immigrants who arrived in the country in the 19th century, mainly from Italy and Spain.
Some of the main Argentine customs and traditions are:
- The tango . It is a musical genre and a type of dance typical of the River Plate area, considered Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. It emerged in the popular neighborhoods of cities such as Buenos Aires and Montevideo (Uruguay) at the end of the 19th century as a form of expression for immigrants and Creoles. His music stands out for its emotional lyrics, the use of words typical of lunfardo and the use of instruments such as bandoneon, guitar, violin, piano and double bass. The tango dance is performed in pairs with movements such as the cut and the quebrada.
- Folklore . It is made up of autochthonous Argentine music that has its roots in indigenous cultures and among which genres such as the chacarera, the zamba and the chamamé stand out. In these genres guitars, drums, accordions, quenas, flutes and more instruments are used that vary according to each rhythm. Some of the main exponents of Argentine folklore are Atahualpa Yupanqui, Los Chalchaleros, Mercedes Sosa, Vitillo Ábalos, Horacio Guarany, Jorge Cafrune, among many others.
- The roast . It is the method used to cook grilled meat and it is one of the most deeply rooted customs in Argentina. Meetings between family and friends are typical of the idiosyncrasy of this country, and Argentines tend to get together regularly to share meals, especially asado (thanks to the excellent quality of their meats).
- The mate . It is one of the most widespread customs in the country, which consists of an infusion in which yerba mate is placed in a container similar to a small cup and a light bulb and hot water are added. It is taken individually or in a group and sugar , sweetener, juice or herbs can be added to it.
- Football . It is the sport with the largest number of followers in the country and is practiced by women and men, both professionally and amateur, in all regions. The fans are followers of the national team and local and neighborhood teams that compete for cups and prizes in different categories. Some of the most famous clubs in Argentina are: Boca Juniors, River Plate, Racing Club and Independiente.
- The lunfardo . It is a jargon that emerged in the River Plate area, and then spread to the rest of the country, which includes words brought by immigrants. They are part of the lunfardo words that are used daily today, such as bondi (collective), afanar (steal), laburo (work), among many others.
- Carnival . It is a celebration that takes place before Holy Week in different parts of Argentina. The characteristics and traditions of the carnivals vary according to the regions, but music, parades and festivals prevail in all of them. They include the Corrientes carnival, the Gualeguaychú carnival in Entre Ríos, the Jujuy carnival, among others.
- The gaucho riding . It is an activity typical of South American countries that consists of the riding of a foal by a rider who must stand on his back. There are different categories of jineteadas that are part of the gaucho tradition and that attract sympathizers in cities and towns of the country. The Jesús María National Dressage and Folklore Festival is one of the most important in its category.
National symbols and Argentine national holidays
The national symbols that represent Argentina are:
- The Argentine flag . It was created in 1812 by Manuel Belgrano and is made up of three horizontal stripes. The upper and lower stripes are light blue and the middle one is white and has in the center a golden sun with 32 rays.
- The Argentine National Anthem . It was written by Alejandro Vicente López y Planes and composed by Blas Parera in 1812-1813. The original lyrics are made up of nine stanzas and a chorus, but currently only two stanzas and the chorus are sung. On May 11 his day is celebrated.
- The Argentine shield . It is oval in shape and inside a red Phrygian cap on a pike supported by two human arms. The oval structure is bordered by laurels and a golden sun and its design dates back to 1813.
In Argentina , two main national dates are celebrated : May 25, the day on which the anniversary of the May Revolution and the formation of the first national government are commemorated, and July 9, the day on which independence is celebrated. Both dates recall the independence process at the beginning of the 19th century.
Other important national dates in Argentina are: June 20, the day on which the death of Manuel Belgrano (creator of the flag) is commemorated, March 24, Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice, the 2 of April, in honor of those who fell in the Malvinas War, on June 17, in honor of General Miguel Martín de Güemes, on August 17, in honor of General José de San Martín, on October 12, day of respect for cultural diversity and November 20, National Sovereignty Day. In addition, Argentina celebrates (and is a holiday) Christmas, New Years, Easter, Worker's Day, Immaculate Conception Day, and Carnival.
The main economic activities in Argentina are agriculture and livestock . Much of the economy of this country depends on the export of grains, such as wheat, soybeans, sunflower, corn, barley and sorghum. Regarding livestock, the main animals that are raised are cattle and sheep and there is also a large presence of the poultry and pig industry.
Since the land presents a great variety of climates and rainfall , the soil varies a lot and this makes possible the sowing of a great variety of products such as vine, olive, cane, cherries, peanuts, flax, tea, nuts, cotton , yerba mate, citrus, vegetables, tobacco, legumes, among many others.
Argentina is a country with great natural resources, such as watersheds that provide water, oil and gas reserves, minerals, and forest resources.
The tourism is also an important part of the Argentina economy . The most visited places by tourism are: the Iguazú Falls, in Misiones, the Perito Moreno glacier, in Santa Cruz, the city of Buenos Aires, the Humahuaca ravine, in Jujuy, the city of Mendoza, the province of Salta, the city of Bariloche, the city of Ushuaia, among others.
Argentina is ranked 46 (year 2020) in the Human Development Index made by the United Nations , which measures life expectancy, access to education and GDP per capita.
Argentine form of government
Argentina is a republic that has a democratic form of government that is characterized by being:
- Representative . Power is held by representatives who are elected by suffrage by the people. Voting in Argentina is universal, secret and compulsory and all citizens over 18 years of age vote, and voting between 16 and 18 years is optional.
- Republican . Power is divided into executive power, legislative power and judicial power. The president is elected by the people for a four-year term (and can be re-elected only once) and elects ministers and officials. The country is governed by the National Constitution, which is the fundamental law that establishes the rights and duties of all citizens. The legislative power is made up of the Chamber of Deputies (made up of 257 deputies) and the Senate (made up of 72 senators).
- Federal . Each province maintains its autonomy and autonomous powers and has its own constitution (which cannot contradict the National Constitution).
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